, Paul Krugman stated that the institutions built by the New Deal remain the bedrock of the United States economic stability.  Especially Harry S. Truman's Fair Deal and in the 1960s Lyndon B. Johnson's Great Society used the New Deal as inspiration for a dramatic expansion of liberal programs. HOLC set uniform national appraisal methods and simplified the mortgage process. The Works Progress Administration subsidized artists, musicians, painters and writers on relief with a group of projects called Federal One. By 1942–1943, they shut down relief programs such as the WPA and the CCC and blocked major liberal proposals. All of the CCC camps were directed by army officers, whose salaries came from the relief budget.  The New Deal preserved democracy in the United States in a historic period of uncertainty and crises when in many other countries democracy failed.. Millions of farmers left marginal operations, students quit school and housewives joined the labor force. , At first, the New Deal created programs primarily for men as it was assumed that the husband was the "breadwinner" (the provider) and if they had jobs the whole family would benefit. In the 1960s, Lyndon B. Johnson's Great Society used the New Deal as inspiration for a dramatic expansion of liberal programs, which Republican Richard Nixon generally retained.  MacLean rejected the idea of a definitive political culture. Black workers were especially vulnerable to the economic downturn since most of them worked the most marginal jobs such as unskilled or service-oriented work, therefore they were the first to be discharged and additionally many employers preferred white workers. The Great Depression even worsened the agricultural crises and at the beginning of 1933 agricultural markets nearly faced collapse.  Under the gold standards, price–specie flow mechanism countries that lost gold, but nevertheless wanted to maintain the gold standard, had to permit their money supply to decrease and the domestic price level to decline (deflation). He explained to the public in simple terms the causes of the banking crisis, what the government would do, and how the population could help. While it is essentially consensus among historians and academics that the New Deal brought about a large increase in the power of the federal government, there has been some scholarly debate concerning the results of this federal expansion.  The programs were not specifically targeted to alleviate the much higher unemployment rate of blacks. At the center of the NIRA was the National Recovery Administration (NRA), headed by former General Hugh S. Johnson, who had been a senior economic official in World War I. Johnson called on every business establishment in the nation to accept a stopgap "blanket code": a minimum wage of between 20 and 45 cents per hour, a maximum workweek of 35–45 hours and the abolition of child labor. Women also were hired for the WPA's school lunch program. However, when Roosevelt announced major regime changes people[who?] "Executive Order 6859 – Reorganizing the N.R.A.  A 2013 study found that "an average increase in New Deal relief and public works spending resulted in a 5.4 percentage point increase in the 1936 Democratic voting share and a smaller amount in 1940. The U.S. economy experienced dramatic growth during the Second World War mostly due to the deemphasis of free enterprise in favor of the imposition of strict controls on prices and wages.  Other communists worked for the National Labor Relations Board, the National Youth Administration, the Works Progress Administration, the Federal Theater Project, the Treasury and the Department of State.. One class of New Deal policies was reform: wage and price control, the Blue Eagle, the national industrial recovery movement. Relief was also aimed at providing temporary help to suffering and unemployed Americans. In 2013, Tea Party activists in the House nonetheless tried to end the program, now known as the Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program, while the Senate fought to preserve it. John K. McNulty, "Unintegrated Corporate and Individual Income Taxes: USA", in: Paul Kirchhof et al.. GNP was $99.7 billion in 1940 and $210.1 billion in 1944. , There was no attempt whatsoever to end segregation, or to increase black rights in the South, and a number of leaders that promoted the New Deal were racist and anti semites.. As Patterson has asserted, "though the record of the FERA was remarkably good—almost revolutionary—in these respects it was inevitable, given the financial requirements imposed on deficit-ridden states, that friction would develop between governors and federal officials".. According to Bernanke, there was also a debt-deflation effect of the depression which was clearly offset by a reflation through the growth in money supply. Even firms whose securities were publicly traded published no regular reports or even worse rather misleading reports based on arbitrarily selected data. Between 1933 and 1941, the average federal budget deficit was 3% per year. The analysis suggests that the elimination of the policy dogmas of the gold standard, a balanced budget in times of crises and small government led endogenously to a large shift in expectation that accounts for about 70–80 percent of the recovery of output and prices from 1933 to 1937.