Next, in 1684, a punitive mission was launched against Genoa in retaliation for its support for Spain in previous wars. Drevet’s engraving exudes warmth: from the graceful play of light off the velvets and furs, to the heaviness of the fleur-de-lis embroidered drapery. The Arts and the Royal Court Under Louis XIV, 9 Things You May Not Know About Louis XIV. Acceptance of the will of Charles II and consequences, See also Louis' commissioned academy of dance, discussed in, sfn error: no target: CITEREFAnselme1726 (, Louis had no children; he died aged 10 in 1795. Louis XIV (Louis Dieudonné; 5 September 1638 – 1 September 1715), known as Louis the Great (Louis le Grand) or the Sun King (le Roi Soleil), was King of France from 14 May 1643 until his death in 1715.  Voltaire's history, The Age of Louis XIV, named Louis' reign as not only one of the four great ages in which reason and culture flourished, but the greatest ever. His 5-year-old great-grandson succeeded him as Louis XV. His choices were strategic and varied. During his childhood, he was taken care of by the governesses Françoise de Lansac and Marie-Catherine de Senecey. His mother had experienced four stillbirths between 1619 and 1631. By attaching nobles to his court at Versailles, Louis achieved increased control over the French aristocracy. However, Rigaud's intention was to glorify the monarchy. ("I depart, but the State shall always remain."). He integrated ballet deeply in court social functions and fixated his nobles' attention on upholding standards in ballet dancing, effectively distracting them from political activities. Mazarin suppressed the revolt in 1653 and by decade’s end had restored internal order and negotiated a peace treaty with Hapsburg Spain, making France a leading European power. To break the Portuguese dominance there, Louis sent Jesuit missionaries to the court of the Kangxi Emperor in 1685: Jean de Fontaney, Joachim Bouvet, Jean-François Gerbillon, Louis Le Comte, and Claude de Visdelou. For example, he patronised the arts, encouraged industry, fostered trade and commerce, and sponsored the founding of an overseas empire. His uncle, the future. However, Louis first had to neutralize Nicolas Fouquet, the Superintendent of Finances, in order to give Colbert a free hand.  He named it after Louis IX and intended it as a reward for outstanding officers.  Orléans, however, had Louis' will annulled by the Parlement of Paris after his death and made himself sole regent. European apprehension at growing French might and the realisation of the extent of the dragonnades' effect (discussed below) led many states to abandon their alliance with France. Finance had always been the weak spot in the French monarchy: methods of collecting taxes were costly and inefficient; direct taxes passed through the hands of many intermediate officials; and indirect taxes were collected by private concessionaries, called tax farmers, who made a substantial profit. For his part, Voltaire saw Louis' vanity as the cause for his bellicosity: It is certain that he passionately wanted glory, rather than the conquests themselves. He judged that royal authority thrived more surely by filling high executive and administrative positions with these men because they could be more easily dismissed than nobles of ancient lineage, with entrenched influence. He produced no children, however, and consequently had no direct heirs. In addition, France also contested shorter wars, such as the War of Devolution and the War of the Reunions. One of the leaders of the Parlement of Paris, whom she had jailed, died in prison. The Dutch captured Pondichéry in 1693, but a 1697 French raid on the Spanish treasure port of Cartagena, Spain, yielded a fortune of 10,000,000 livres. His finance minister, Jean-Baptiste Colbert (1619-1683), implemented reforms that sharply reduced the deficit and fostered the growth of industry, while his war minister, the Marquis de Louvois (1641-1691), expanded and reorganized the French army. Symboles des attributs de la monarchie française : le collier de l'ordre du Saint-Esprit, le sceptre, la couronne, la main de la justice, l'épée de Charlemagne, le manteau à fleur de lys. , Louis was a pious and devout king who saw himself as the head and protector of the Gallican Church. I order you not to sign anything, not even a passport . Sa Majesté très-chrétienne y est peinte en pied, revêtue de ses habits royaux. They were among the most significant means to spread royal propaganda prior to the construction of the Hall of Mirrors at Versailles. Under pressure from the English, Swedish and especially the Dutch, France retreated and returned the region to Spain, gaining only some frontier towns in Flanders. It is notable as the first decoration that could be granted to non-nobles and is roughly the forerunner of the Légion d'honneur, with which it shares the red ribbon (though the Légion d'honneur is awarded to military personnel and civilians alike). Tapestries could be allegorical, depicting the elements or seasons, or realist, portraying royal residences or historical events. A 1701 portrait of Louis XIV of France, known as Louis the Great or the Sun King (1638-1715), painting by Hyacinthe Rigaud. By the Truce of Ratisbon, in 1684, Spain was forced to acquiesce in the French occupation of most of the conquered territories, for 20 years.. This was felt by the Netherlands, France's Protestant ally, which negotiated a separate peace with Spain in 1648.. Nevertheless, excellent results were achieved: the deficit of 1661 turned into a surplus in 1666. In addition to portraits, Louis commissioned at least 20 statues of himself in the 1680s, to stand in Paris and provincial towns as physical manifestations of his rule. MV2041, inv. Le 3 septembre 1703, dans une lettre touchante qu’il adressa à la marquise, Philippe V avouait à son tour : « Je vous remercie des soins que vous avez pris pour me procurer le portrait du roi, que j’attends avec impatience. Rigaud's original, now housed in the Louvre, was originally meant as a gift to Louis' grandson, Philip V of Spain. People in France were complaining about the expansion of royal authority, the high rate of taxation, and the reduction of the authority of the Parlement de Paris and other regional representative entities. , On 15 October 1685, Louis issued the Edict of Fontainebleau, which cited the redundancy of privileges for Protestants given their scarcity after the extensive conversions. On the other hand, there are historians who view this as an exaggeration. Thanks to Louis, his allies the Electors of Bavaria and Cologne were restored to their prewar status and returned their lands.. digital representation of. On September 1, 1715, four days before his 77th birthday, Louis XIV died of gangrene at Versailles.
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